Female Researchers in the R&D Institutions
Research and development institutions’ number and ratio of researchers by gender
B. How to measure
The number and ratio by gender of researchers working in research and development institutions
C. Features and Sources
Category Sub-Category Sub-Subcategory Type of Indicator Reference Data Sources First year data available Periodicity Rights to Equality Discrimination Factors Gender Objective/Result Ministry of Science and ICT Survey of Research and Development 1983 1 year
Research and development institutions are those which employ highly educated researchers with master’s degrees or higher. Therefore, it is noteworthy to examine the gender of researchers in these institutions in that it can show the proportion of researchers and the barriers to employment to such institutions by gender. A survey was conducted of all researchers in public research institutes, universities, medical institutions, and corporations nationwide. There have been a number of studies in this field which show that the barriers to employment to such institutions are higher for women due to the responsibilities of marriage and parenting. By the same token, these studies may also indicate the prevalence of human rights violations by gender in these institutions. According to the indicators, the number of female researchers working for research and development institutions is less than 20% of the total number of researchers. This can be interpreted in two ways; it can reflect the relatively high proportion of males with the educational qualifications for such research positions, or it can reflect that the entry barriers to such research positions are disproportionately high for women. Either interpretation indicates that women are underrepresented in the research and development labor market, and therefore, government and social efforts are necessary to solve this problem.